Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey

Nükhet Kardam


Prof. Kardam started her career with a focus on organizational change and especially the response of international development agencies to gender issues. She published one of the pioneering studies on what is now called ‘gender mainstreaming’, titled Bringing Women In: Women’s Issues in International Development Programs (Lynne Rienner 1991). She then turned her attention to how global women’s human rights norms are received and implemented in local contexts, publishing a book on the implementation of women’s human rights in Turkey called: Turkey’s Engagement with Global Women’s Human Rights (Ashgate, 2005). Her research focus later broadened to include not just gender identity but self and identity in general and to intercultural communication. To that effect, Prof. Kardam explored her own and her family’s identity in the context of the Ottoman Empire’s demise and the rise of modern Turkey in a book: From Ottoman to Turk and Beyond published digitally as well as in paperback in both English and Turkish. Presently, she is working on a new project with Prof. Andrea Olsen from Middlebury College tentatively titled “Reflective Practices for Social Change Practitioners.”

She has worked as an international gender consultant with various United Nations agencies and invited to UN expert committee meetings on global gender norms and policies throughout her career. She has undertaken needs assessment studies and evaluated women’s human rights programs and projects in Turkey, Turkmenistan, and Azerbaijan among others. Prof. Kardam is also the holder of two Fulbright scholarships.

Prof. Kardam’s teaching interests have closely paralleled her research. She has taught courses on Gender and Development, Women’s Human Rights, Development Theory and Practice, Social Sector Needs Assessment, Communicating for Social Change, and Power, Identity, and Multiculturalism.

Academic Degrees

  • Ph.D. in Political Science from Michigan State University
  • M.A in International Relations from the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
  • B.A in Philosophy from Istanbul University

Watercolor Identities: Explore the Nature of Identity


Women's Human Rights, Gender and International Development, Development Assistance, Implementation of Global Human Rights Norms in Local Contexts, Political and Cultural Context of Development Practice, Identity Politics.

Books, Articles and Public Presentations


Articles and Presentations

  • Kardam, Nükhet, and Lane, Brittany. "Women Communicating for Social Change is Way of Life" The Women's International Perspective. 5 May 2015.
  • INTERSECTION, Episode 46. Aslan Media. "Turkish Politics and Women's Human Rights" 2 Sept. 2014. Radio.
  • Kardam, Nükhet, and Meltrem, Agduk. "Mobilizing Religious Leaders to Combat Violence against Women in Turkey." The Women's International Perspective. 14 Aug. 2014.
  • Kardam, Nükhet (April 2013), TEDxMonterey "Watercolor Identities."
  • Kardam, Nükhet and Fredric Kropp (2013), "Global Trends: Women as Social Entrepreneurs: a Case Study." In Women in the Global Economy: Leading Social Change. Global Education Research Reports 8, edited by Trish Tierney. San Francisco, Institute of International Education
  • Ongoing Research Project in “Intercultural Modes of Thinking and Reasoning” at the Monterey Institute with Fusun Akarsu, Philip Murphy and Katherine Punteney - in countries like Macedonia, Israel, USA, Kyrgyzstan and Turkey.
  • Turkey’s Response to the Global Gender Regime”, GEMC (Gender Equality and Multicultural Conviviality Journal), Tohoku University, no. 4, 2011
  • Leslie Eliason Teaching Excellence Award, 2010
  • Contributing author, UNIFEM, “Aid and Security.” In Progress of the World’s Women Report, 2008-2009.
Course List

Courses offered in the past four years.
indicates offered in the current term
indicates offered in the upcoming term[s]

DPPG 8518 - Women's Human Rights:Xcultural      

This course will focus on the global women’s human rights norms as embodied in legal instruments such as CEDAW (Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women) and the Beijing Platform for Action. We will explore the process of their formulation, how women’s rights were placed on the global agenda, and the level of acceptance of international policy and global norms by state parties. We will then move to women’s human rights policies and their implementation in national and local contexts. We will investigate how cultural and religious norms complement and/or contradict global norms on women’s rights. We will explore different rights, such and the right to be free from violence of all forms, and the role of men. We will also explore different areas of Development such as Refugees and Migration, Sex Trafficking, Political Participation and Democratization. Finally, we will learn and apply advocacy tools to advance women’s rights. Thus, this course will investigate the policy process from agenda setting to implementation at global and local levels.

Fall 2016 - MIIS

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DPPG 8542 / ICCO 9542 - SPR:Communicating Change World      

Communication skills are of particular relevance to Development Practice and Policy (DPP) students who intend to work in diverse intercultural settings to promote social change for social justice. We believe that communication is the center point of what constitutes development (defined as furthering social justice). The communications field has traditionally been understood as public relations and marketing but in this course, we focus on identity, perceptions, listening and advocacy dimensions and how our internal landscape affects how we act, speak and listen in intercultural contexts. Many projects have failed because development has simply been understood as imitation of more developed countries and transfer of information and knowledge leading to desired changes in behavior. In this sense, communication becomes purely instrumental. It has become clear that we must pay attention to the process and intent of the communication between the varied stakeholders: the donors, recipients, government representatives, community leaders, and people who live in those communities. Thus, we would like to define communication for development as the use of communication processes, techniques and media to help people toward a full awareness of their situation and their options for change, to resolve conflicts, to work towards consensus, to help people plan actions for change and sustainable development.

International aid agencies are now calling more and more for the kinds of ‘soft skills’ that help aid workers enter new communities, to come across as human beings who are self-aware and present, who listen before talking or telling, who are also aware that communication is much more than just ‘verbal’. A central premise of this course is that communication is a whole-body experience and that it involves a dynamic and fluid interchange between a person’s internal and external environments. A second premise is that when we naturally connect with ourselves, we connect better with others and truly share practical wisdom and insights. Drawing from the Intercultural Communication literature and from the literature on ‘Whole Body Intelligence, as well as case studies drawn from both development agencies’ experiences and alumni working in the field, we will investigate how we ‘arrive’ in a new community, how we use our voice, how we listen, and how we use space. We will examine how understanding our nervous system helps us deal with conflict. We will explore our own perceptions and biases as development workers, how projections may lead to ‘othering’ and to conflict. We will investigate how the languages we employ shape the way we communicate. We will focus on our own identities, as well as how others perceive us and how identity interplays with power. We will study different modes of communication: verbal and nonverbal, as well as virtual. Art and food traditions will also be explored as significant avenues of communication, enhancing intercultural values and dialogue.

Spring 2017 - MIIS

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DPPG 8637 - SPR:SEM:Soc Sector Needs Assmt      

This 2-credit, 2-weekend course introduces participants to a variety of tools and methodologies for participatory needs assessment in the context of poverty. The goal of this course is to develop and apply the fundamental needs and assets assessment skills necessary for a career in international development. International aid agencies are now calling more and more for the kinds of ‘soft skills’ that help aid workers enter new communities, to come across as human beings who are self-aware and present, flexible and creative, who listen before talking or telling, and who understand that communication is much more than just ‘verbal’.

The following topics will be covered:

1) An overview of Poverty, Social Change, Participation, and Asset-Based Development (including the importance of an Asset-Based approach in sustainable development; types of assets, including social capital);

2) An overview of participatory methods, tools, techniques and strategies applied in Asset Based Development activities. We will focus on how external facilitators interact with local participants and other stakeholder groups employing appropriate soft skills, which include the more traditional needs assessment tools, such as priority ranking, mapping, seasonal calendar, as well as somatic tools for effective communication in intercultural contexts.

Spring 2017 - MIIS, Spring 2018 - MIIS

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DPPG 8643 / ICCO 9643 - SemPwr&Idntity/MultiCultrlWrld      

In this seminar, we first examine our own identities in a reflective and critical way. Why are some identities complementary to each other, while others are contradictory? Why are some identities repressed or redefined? In the second section of the course, we investigate the social construction of identities. How do we construct the ‘other’? Under what circumstances does the ‘other’ become the enemy? We discuss nation building in this context as one group’s power over others in defining the national identity, its myths, history, language and other defining characteristics. How does nation building empower particular ethnic, religious, racial groups in this process at the expense of others? Where is the balance between maintaining cultural diversity and group rights, at the same time creating a state which erases group privileges in order to promote individual rights and ‘citizens’ whose primary loyalty is to the ‘nation’? The third and final section of the course focuses on the problems related to the recognition of multiculturalism. We analyze policies on language, religion, culture, and ethnicity in specific countries with the aim of discovering the conditions that promote multiculturalism.

Fall 2016 - MIIS, Spring 2018 - MIIS, Spring 2018 - MIIS, MIIS Workshop

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